Last year, a groundbreaking international trial known as HPTN052 drew worldwide attention when it found that earlier ARV treatment of HIV-infected individuals led to a dramatic 96% decrease in HIV transmission to the uninfected partners in serodiscordant relationships (see VAX July 2011 Spotlight, An Antiretroviral Renaissance). The study also found that earlier treatment delayed the time to AIDS-defining events and tuberculosis and significantly decreased the incidence of clinical events for those with HIV.